Wellness care is the cornerstone of small ruminants health at Tufts Veterinary Field Service. Comprehensive physical examinations, routine vaccinations, illness diagnosis, dental and fecal exams and developing deworming programs are all services offered to keep sheep, goats, alpacas and llamas strong and active. Tufts Veterinary Field Service is also able to diagnose pregnancy on location with a portable ultrasound machine.
Many owners will reach out if they feel their animal is not eating properly, or if the animal is exhibiting signs of pain. Other concerns may include suspected urinary blockages, incoordination, the ingestion of poisonous plants, excessive grain consumption and challenges with parasites.
If one of your small ruminants exhibits any of the following signs, call our clinic office immediately:
It is recommended that the owner take the rectal temperature of their animal prior to calling the office for an appointment. For reference, a normal temperature range for a sheep or goat is 102-103.5° F and 100-102° F for a llama or alpaca.
In talking with one of our office staff members, or a veterinarian, you will be able to decide if and when your animal should be seen, either at our haul-in facility or on-farm, if within the geographical area that Tufts Veterinary Field Service covers.
During the visit, the veterinarian will perform a physical examination including (but not limited to) checking the animal’s temperature, heart rate and organ system function. At the completion of the physical examination, the veterinarian will discuss potential causes for your animal’s illness, as well as possible diagnostic tests and treatments. Additional diagnostics available include:
Vaccinations are an integral part of preventing disease in your sheep, goat, llama or alpaca. Rabies and Clostridium Perfringens Types C & D - Tetanus Toxoid (CDT) are considered core vaccines for all small ruminants. There are other vaccines available, but their use is typically customized to individual farms based on necessity.
Rabies is fatal virus that can infect the brain of small ruminants and humans. It is spread when an infected animal bites or scratches an uninfected animal. Rabies is endemic to New England, meaning it is regularly found in wild animal populations and CAN affect small ruminants. Tufts Veterinary Field Service typically treats a few cases of rabies each year. Protection is simple with an annual vaccine administered by a veterinarian. The vaccine can be given to all sheep, goats, llamas and alpacas over 12 weeks of age. Rabies vaccination is required for small ruminants being exhibited at fairs or shows in the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island, but we recommend all that all of our patients are current on this vaccine.
CDT is a well-known acronym that stands for a combination vaccine against Clostridium perfringens types C & D, as well as tetanus. These bacteria live in our soil, as well as in the normal intestinal flora of healthy animals. In the event of Clostridium perfringens overgrowth, your small ruminant may develop a fatal intestinal infection. Tetanus infection can lead to a fatal neuromuscular disease. The use of the CDT vaccine decreases the chance of contracting these diseases significantly. The vaccine is administered twice (one month apart) to weanlings, and then repeated annually thereafter. This schedule works for all small ruminants. Ideally, the annual booster is given to pregnant females approximately 30 days prior to giving birth, to provide protection to the kids through the colostrum.
Internal and external parasites are common in small ruminants. Veterinarians at Tufts Veterinary Field Service can help tailor a plan to prevent parasitism in your animal. In the event that they infect your animals, Tufts Veterinary Field Service can help diagnose their presence and aid in removal.
Internal parasites are the most commonly discussed parasites of small ruminants because of the Internal parasites are significant causes of disease and death in small ruminants. Haemonchus contortus (Barber pole worm) sucks blood from the stomach of infected animals leaving them anemic, weak, and at risk of death. Small ruminants pass the eggs of this parasite in their manure, and then other ruminants ingest the hatched larvae allowing adult worms to then grow in the stomach of the second infected animal. This occurs most readily in the warm and wet seasons. There are a few things that can be done to monitor animals for the presence of these parasites, as well as the degree of their presence.
The FAffa MAlan CHArt or FAMACHA score is used to identify anemia. Tufts Veterinary Field Service staff are trained to FAMACHA score animals and assist clients to find training opportunities for themselves.
In addition to anemia, it is important for small ruminant owners to recognize other indicators of parasite infestation in their animals. These includes:
Tufts Veterinary Field Service also offers in-house fecal analysis, which allows same day results. Fecal samples can return to the clinic for analysis with the veterinarian who visits the animal, may be dropped off at the clinic by the owner in-person, or may be mailed in via overnight service to the clinic (on ice) with an indication that the package must be opened immediately.
Tufts Veterinary Field Service’s fecal analysis detects a variety of parasites, and can quantify the load the animal is harboring as well. Results will be delivered to the owner by a phone call from a veterinarian or veterinary technician. Parasite control programs can be customized based on these results. Deworming programs may vary greatly, depending on the individual animal’s history and fecal results. At a minimum, we recommend fecal are performed twice a year, in the Spring and Fall.
Tufts Veterinary Field Service can perform surgical & nonsurgical procedures, either at the clinic in Woodstock, CT or at the animal’s home. Surgery in the haul-in facility at the clinic offers safer anesthetic options as well as more advanced monitoring of the patient during the procedure.
The following surgical procedures are performed routinely by our veterinarians:
Ivan Craig Embree
Dairy Production & Management
Small Ruminant Medicine, Surgery and Reproductive Technologies, Dairy Herd Health
David M Hernke
Dairy Production Medicine, General Surgery
Erin E. King
Dairy Production Medicine, Farm Animal Welfare
Kevin A. Lindell
Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Dairy Herd Health
David J. Matsas
Large Animal Medicine and Theriogenology
Lindsay B Philips
Farm Animal Welfare
Equine Respiratory Diseases (IAD, EIPH, RAO)
Eugene C. White
Dairy Production Medicine Advanced Reproductive Technologies – Bovine
Julia G Wilkinson
Equine and Small Ruminant Medicine and Surgery