Dogs bark for a variety of reasons, including to ward off "intruders," to attempt to reunite themselves with their "pack," and to gain attention from owners. Prevent barking and other excessive vocalizations by teaching your dog that guests are associated with positive experiences. Gradually exposing your dog to your absence will be a first step towards avoiding excessive vocalizations associated with separation anxiety. If you don’t reward attention-seeking barking with your attention, the behavior will eventually extinguish because it does not reap the desired reward. To prevent nuisance barking that stems from insufficient stimulation, ensure that your dog receives daily mental and physical exercise.